Russian History/Histoire Russe, Spring 2002, 29, no.4, p.79-98.


Observations on the Early Russian Collections of the Library of Congress

by Andrei I. Pliguzov

The present paper is the sequel to a series of five articles describing early Russian materials in the Library of Congress [1].

Among the holdings of the Library of Congress, the de Ricci catalog (1935) identifies only one manuscript fragment of Slavonic provenance-an illuminated page from Ioann Ekzarkh Bolgarskii's Shestodnev [a six-day prayer suite] on parchment [2].

E. G. Baskakov's surveys, published in 1959 and 1962, include the Library of Congress holdings, even though the author was never in America and had to rely on the writings of American archivists, who made no great effort to include information about Russian sources in their guides [3].

In 1979 Natal'ia S. Demkova published the first description of some of the early Russian materials held by the Library of Congress [4]. From this work we learned that the Library of Congress houses several early Russian books and manuscripts, most notably the Tsvetnaia Triod' [the liturgy from Easter to All Saints' Week] (no call number)[5] and the Pomorskie otvety [Answers from Pomor'e (a priestless Christian community that dwelt in the White Sea coastal region from the late 17th to mid-19th century)] (call number BX601 .D4)[6]. These two manuscript books were described in rather great detail in N. S. Demkova's article. Among the early printed books, she mentioned the Grammatika Meletiia Smotritskogo (Moscow, 1648), and she referred to V. Jackson's supplement to R. O. Jakobson's work, which mentions that the Library holds a copy of the Apostol' by Ivan Fedorov [7].

Edward Kasinec published in Polata Knigopisnaja (Nijmegen, the Netherlands), March 1980, and later republished in his book Slavic Books and Bookmen (New York: 1984) "Notes on Old Cyrillic Printed Books and Mansucripts in American Repositories," which mentions some Slavic manuscripts and printed books held by the Rare Book Division of the Library of Congress. He first mentioned the manuscript in the Rare Book Division (see footnote 5 above).

Let us begin with the manuscript folio that merited inclusion in de Ricci's catalog. It measures 27.7 by 21.4 cm. The scribe's handwriting clearly dates to the 15th century, and one illumination in the teratological style, measuring 16.4 by 13.3 cm, must be dated to the early 14th century.

This folio was acquired from a certain Kirkor Minassian [8], who brought it to the Library of Congress and left it for the expert evaluation of Dr. K. N. Fowler. The latter forwarded the folio to N. P. Rodionov, who was the acting chief of the Slavic Department. On October 24, 1931, Rodionov issued his conclusion, in which he avoided the issue of the age of the manuscript folio, referring only to the oldest known manuscript copy of the Shestodnev, which dates to the 13th century [9]. The ornamentation corresponds more to the 14th century, and the penmanship more to the 15th century. Nevertheless, the de Richi reference work describes our folio as belonging to the 15th century, which completely misleads researchers. The illumination style antedates the fragment itself by almost two centuries. N. S. Demkova found a solution to this confused situation; she determined that the folio was written in the 15th century, that the material is parchment, and that the illumination was contemporary with the rest of the text.

But let us return to the folio that Minassian brought to the Library. The left column is written on a slant, whereas the right column is perpendicular. The right column was written more carefully, as if the apprentice's hand was being held more firmly, not allowing it to deviate either to the left or the right. In the script one sees elements that are not present in any similar manuscript, e.g., the letters "o" inserted above the word blgslvi [bless]. The verg_s [laid paper] and pontuseaux [watermark horizontal lines in the laid paper] cannot be examined because of a precautionary measure: an opaque brown paper was glued solidly onto the back surface. At some point, however, the paper was ripped off, and no trace of the paper grid is visible; there is only a smooth surface unbroken by a grid of verg_s and pontuseaux. On the basis of these facts, we can claim that folio No. 69 is a counterfeit and can exclude it from further examination.

The Library's earliest Slavonic/Russian book unquestionably is the Apostol Ivana Fedorova [Ivan Fedorov's Books of the Apostles] (1564) [10], followed chronologically by his Bible (1581) [11], the Evkhologion (1646) [12], Uchenie i khitrost' ratnago stroeniia pekhotnykh liudei (1647) [13], the Grammatika Meletiia Smotritskogo (1648) [14], the Ulozhenie Alekseia Mikhailovicha (1649) [15], the Kormchaia [nomocanon] (1649) [16],a revised edition of the Kormchaia (1653) [17], the Tolkovoe Evangel'e [Gospels with Commentary] (1665) [18], the Mir s Bogom [Peace with God] of Innokentii Gizel' (Kiev, 1669) [19], the Psaltir [Psalter] of Simeon Polotskii (1680) [20], and the Bukvar' [primer] of Karion Istomin (1649) [21].

The final book in this list should have been the Pravilo of 1700, but examination of the piece does not support such an early publication date. This Pravilo was printed half a century later. There is no date, but one of the prayers mentions the still-living Peter III (who was killed on July 6, 1762) and the already-born Pavel Petrovich (born September 20, 1754). Therefore, the book was printed between late 1754 and the middle of 1762 [22]. V. M. Undol'skii provides an exact date of the book's publication-1758 [23].

The Library of Congress also possesses some Slavonic/Russian manuscripts. The Music Division holds six musical manuscripts belonging to the Old-Believer tradition. Each of the works dates to the 19th century. One musical manuscript dating to the 1730s and 1740s belonged to the Orthodox milieu.

1. M 2156 / XVIII M 1.

Kniga glagolemaia Irmosy. Tvorenie Ioanna Damaskina. [The Book Called the Hirmologion. A Composition by John of Damascus] [24].

In folio, 21 x 34 cm, 222 ff. Late 19th century.

Paper lacks stamps and watermarks. It dates to the final quarter of the 19th century.

9 folios with large colored illuminations. Probably belongs to the Guslitsa tradition, i.e., a Central Russian manuscript.

Old Believer, popovskaia [sect which decided to keep the priesthood] manuscript.

Musical manuscript. Znamennoe musical script with pomety and priznaki [25]. The text is istinnorechnyi with fity and litsa.

The piece was rebound at the Library of Congress. Two library cards printed in Russian and German from the auction where the manuscript was acquired were preserved. Its subsquent fate is recorded on a label glued to the back side of the front cover of the binding, which says: "Presented by / the Friends of Music / in the / Library of Congress..." Inscription on the binding: "Hirmologion of John of Damascus."

On the verso of f. a is the stamp number "642887."

On f. 4a verso, is a richly illustrated image: a framed illumination, initial "T."

On the library card there is nothing to indicate the Russian origins of the manuscript.

2. M 2156 / XIX M 17 / case.

Kniga glagolemaia Irmosy. Tvorenie . . . Ioanna Damaskina [The Book Called the Hirmologion. A Composition by John of Damascus].

In folio, 21.3 x 34.2 cm. 2 ff. bound. 1 additional f., 230 ff, 3 additional ff, 1 bound. Late 19th-century paper, lacking stamps and watermarks.

Old-style musical script with pomety and priznaki. Unembellished [istinnorechnyi] text.

Priestless Old Believer manuscript. Pomor'e.

Ornamentation: f. 1 verso, Pomor'e framed illumination, f. 2 richly ornamented initial "T," on the margin Pomor'e ornament with a sitting bird at the top.

Verso, first unnumbered folio, pencil inscription: 5038 36 / Ju 28, 36 / acc. 729406.

3. M 2156 / XIX M 18 / case


Late 19th-century. Paper without stamps and watermarks.

In folio, 2 bound ff, 3 additional blank ff., 252 ff., 3 additional blank ff., 2 bound ff.

Unembellished [istinnorechnyi] text. Old-style musical script with pomety and priznaki.

Judging by the ornamentation, the manuscript was produced somewhere in Central Russia.

On f. 1 verso, framed illumination in four colors: green, blue, red, and gold.

Formerly belonged to A. E. Balashov, but on February 2, 1919, it was sold to Pavel Petrovich Agafonov (cf. inscriptions on the pasted plate and the personal stamp of P. P. Agafonov, which indicates his business address: Lubiansko-Ilyinskie Torgovye Palaty, No. 14/15, Moscow). One of the owners of the manuscript was the Old Believers Bishop Gerontii, whose eparchy was in Petrograd and Tver': two seals on the last unnumbered folios and at the end of the book).

The book was acquired by the Library of Congress before January 22, 1935: on f. 1 verso, pencil inscription: 470289/Ja[nuary] 22, 35 / music.

At the end of the book is the inscription in pencil: Orthodox Eastern Church, Liturgy and Ritual / Church Slavic / Kniga glagolemaia Irmosy / [n.p., n.d.] / m.z.v. Sept - 14 - 56.

4. Torzhestvennik [Solemnity]. Call number M2156 XIX M 19 (case).

255 ff. Late 19th century.

Paper lacks stamps and watermarks.

ff. 2 and 5, framed illuminations, all other texts begin with illuminations.

The manuscript is richly ornamented with gold, bright water-color pigments, probably from the Guslitsa region.

Musical manuscript. Old-style musical script with pomety and priznaki, fity and litsa. The term Bol'shoi rospev is used.

The Library of Congress probably bought the manuscript from a private dealer. On f. II verso, we find the inscription "503837/ju 28, 36/acc. 729487."

The manuscript includes the following collection of church services: Service for the Birth of the Blessed Virgin (ff. 2-20); Service for the Elevation of the Cross (f. 20 verso - 51 verso); Service for the Presentation of the Blessed Virgin (ff. 52-70 verso); Service for the Hours, on the Eve of the Nativity of Christ, written by Patriach Sofronii of Jerusalem (ff. 71-80); Service for the Nativity of Christ (ff. 80 verso - 102); Service for the Tsar's Hours, composed by Patriarch Sofronii (ff. 102 verso - 111); Service for the Epiphany (ff. 111 verso - 126 verso); Service for Advent (ff. 127-144); Service for the Annunciation (ff. 144 verso - 165 verso); Service for Christ's Entry into Jerusalem (ff. 166-185 verso); Service for the Ascension of Christ (ff. 186-200 verso); Service for Pentecost (ff. 201-217); Service for the Transfiguration of Christ (ff. 218-233 verso); Service for the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin (ff. 234-255 verso).

5. M 2156 / XIX / M 20

Obikhod [Rules of Church Singing]. Second half 18th century. In folio, 21 x 33.2 cm. Paper was produced by Aleksandr Ol'khin.

Two bound folios, 6 unnumbered folios, 323 ff., 1 f., 2 bound ff. On the paper the grid of verg_s and pontuseaux is visible. Old-style musical script with pomety and priznaki, using fity and litsa. Designation of choruses: Great Chorus [Bol'shoi rospev]; Stolpovoi Great Chorus [Stolpovoi bol'shoi rospev]; Demestvo; Another Chorus [In rospev]; Another Transcription [In Perevod]; Put'; Kiril's Transcription [Kirilov perevod]; Another of Kiril's Transcriptions [In perevod Kirilov]; Demestvo of Pskov [Demestvo Pskovskii perevod]; Znamia maloe.

Illumination: ff. 5, 6 unnumbered - 2 framed illuminations in Pomor'e style in many colors. F. 1, verso, richly illuminated initial "P." F. 181 verso, illumination in Pomor'e style. Binding produced by the Library of Congress. Previously the book belonged to the merchant Vikul Morozov (stamp on the front page), number 111 in his personal library [26].



f. 5 unnumbered: Book called Rules of Church Singing [Kniga glagolemaia Obikhodnik]...

f. 6 unnumbered: Beginning of the Vigil [Nachalo vsenoshchnogo bdeniia].

f. 29 verso: The Sequence of the Birth and Crucifixion of Christ and the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin [Posledovanie Rozhdestva Khristova i Kreshchenia, i Blagoveshchenia Bogoroditsy].

f. 42: Hymns [Pripevy] for the holidays of Christ, the Blessed Virgin, and some saints.

f. 94: Hymns [Svetil'ny] for the holidays of Christ, the Blessed Virgin, and some saints.

f. 127: Hymns [Zadostoiniki] for the holidays of Christ, the Blessed Virgin.

f. 150 verso: Sequence of the Obikhod for Pentecost, from the week of the merchant and the Pharisee.

f. 181 verso: Sunday hymns [Stikhiry voskresny].

f. 215 verso: Hymns to the Blessed Virgin [Tropari Bogorodichny].

f. 220: Hymns for the Assumption of the Virign [Uspenie].

f. 240 verso: Hymns [Tropari i kondaki] for the holidays of Christ and the Blessed Virgin.

f. 289 verso: Hymns for Christmas Eve.

f. 298 verso: Service for the dead.

See also the description in the Annual Report of the Library of Congress, 1932, pp. 158-159.

6. M 2156/. XIX M 21 (case).

Triod' postnaia [Orthodox service book containing liturgy from Septuagesima to Easter].

20.5 x 10.5 cm. 2, 243, 3 ff. Paper dates to the early 19th century. Wood and leather binding, hasps missing. Old-style musical script with pomety and priznaki.

Acquired by the Library of Congress in July 1936. Inscriptions on f. 1 verso: 503835 / Ju 28, [19]36 / acc. 729405. At the top of the same page: M2156 / XIX / M21 / Case.

7. M 2156/. XVIII M 4 (case).

16.2 x 13.5 cm. 1 (bound), 154, 1 (bound). Paper bears the watermark of the coat of arms of Amsterdam. Dates to the 1720s-1730s.

Five-line staff. Italic quadratic notation.

It includes services to basic church celebrations from the beginning of the church year (the birth of the Virgin Mary, September 8) to August (the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, August 15). All headings are inscribed in red.

The manuscript originated from the Orthodox milieu.

On the verso of f. 1, in pencil: 0276 B 152 / 030 42. On the verso, front cover of the binding: 5/12/89 / 89-752325 [27].


The Law Library houses an interesting Russian manuscript collection, including the following: Svodnoe ulozhenie [complete legal code, the Sobornoe ulozhenie of 1649 with the supplements of 1718-1720] (call number KR107 .A2 Office); the Ukazy velikoi kniazhny Elizavety Petrovny [Edicts of the Great Princess Elizabeth, daughter of Peter] (call number KR114. A1 1729); Materials of the Medical Bureau, 1723-33, 1735-37 (call number KR112 .A1 1732); Veksel'nyi ustav [currency exchange regulations] of Peter II (call number KR889 1729 B; mid-18th-century manuscript); Copy of the Record Books about the Estate of A. Ia. Volkov, prepared for his heiress daughter E. A. Tolstaia (call number 1601 .R9 MS 1765; dated January 31, 1765); Collection of Materials from the Tambov Provincial Bureau Concerning the Estates of the Pashkov Family (call number KR418 .P33; dated 1731 and 1769); Principles of Forestry Legislation (no call number, after 1782, before 1785); Letters of Patent for the Russian Nobility; a copy was given to the Saratov namestnichestvo [a region ruled by a governor-general] (call number KR1245 .A1 1785; dated 1785); Materials from the Senate Records (no call number; 1800-1803); Pedigree of Nobility for A. Ia. Perren, 1825 (call number KR118 Folio); Pedigree of Nobility for Colonel P. V. Ivanov (call number KR 126 Folio); Stoglav [a church council, so-named for its 100 delegates] i zhitie Vasiliia Novago [The Stoglav and the Life of Vasilii Novyi] (call number KR102 .A2, mid-19th century).

The Manuscript Division also holds a Russian Slavonic manuscript, which tells about the Archers' Uprising of 1698. Its call number is MMC-3193 and is filed under the keyword Petr I. It was donated to the Library by Elena Aleksandrovna Yakobson in memory of her late husband Sergius Yakboson. The manuscript definitely originated in the archive of N. P. Krekshin and contains a compilation of compositions by Krekshin himself (f. 1-21) and memoirs by Andrei Artomonovich Matveev (f. 22-80). The paper dates to the late 1740s [28].

Among the recent acquisitions of the Library of Congress are two relatively small collections, whose previous owners are known. Fedor K. Orloff, a member of the Edinoverie sect of Old Believers, came to America in 1890 and settled in the industrial, blue-collar city of Erie, Pennsylvania [29]. The background history of his collection begins with the history of the Edinoverie sect itself.

The sect was noteworthy for its compliancy with the official church. It was founded in the second half of the 18th century by Old Believers who recognized the priesthood but who experienced difficulty in their quest for the true priesthood. Unlike all other sects, the future Edinoverie adherents sought their own hierarchy by any means necessary, even going so far as to remove the sacred vows of the fathers of the Moscow Synod of 1667. Their desire to have their own priesthood was so all-consuming that they were no longer concerned with the primary liturgical and theological issues; if they could just have their own ordained priesthood, then arguments in support of cooperation with the official church could always be found. Already by 1780, in the village of Znamenka in Elizavetgrad uezd [county], the first Edinoverie church was founded at the direction of the Slovenian Archbishop Nikifor Feotoka. The name Edinoverets itself was coined a few years later, in 1800, when the Moscow Metropolitan Platon approved the 16 demands proposed by the Moscow priesthood [popovtsy]. According to his decision, the Edinovertsy were granted exemption from the official church vow of 1667 and were permitted to invite priests ordained by the Bishop, to whom the priests were obligated to be subordinate in every regard. In every regard, but not really.

Now they were permitted to select their own priests, conduct service in Edinoverie places of worship, consecrate churches and communion bread, and to worship using the old books [30]. The Old Believers enjoyed these freedoms up until the Russian Revolution of 1905.

Fedor Orloff was forced to observe all of this from abroad, from faraway America. Undoubtedly he was homesick and closely followed events in Moscow, where, gradually at first and then precipitously, the first signs of religious freedom began to appear. The events of the first Russian revolution were a cause for celebration, giving the Old Believers the opportunity to engage in publishing activity. Orloff took advantage of this opportunity and ordered newly published books from Rusia when the ink was barely dry. They were much different from the book that he apparently brought out with him, the Kormchaia of 1779.

Following the death of Fedor Orloff, the books went to Miakinin "on loan." He, too, was an Edinoverets, whose book collection was bequeathed to the Library by his widow, Marta. The books of Orloff himself were presented to the Library by his son, Konrad F. Orloff, who had seen the television program Treasures of the Library of Congress, which dealt with the Old Believers. Orloff wrote a letter to the Librarian of Congress, J. Billington, requesting that he accept his father's library as a gift. Billington expressed interest, and a procedure was set up to effect the transfer of the books: first, the books of Fedor Orloff were brought to the Library, and then came the books of Marta Miakinin.

Below we present a description of these collections. The collection of the Old Believer Orloff includes 14 books from the Moscow Old Believer press. One book dates to the second half of the 18th century, and the other 13 date to the early 20th century.

1. Bible. An Old Believer reprint of the Fedorov edition of 1581.

1914. 32.5 x 29 cm. Folios 1-2 (bound), 1-8, 1-670, 1-2 (bound). Paper lacks stamps or watermarks. Binding: wood, leather. On the final page, verso: "Prophet Varukh in chapter 1" (pencil), "G-va-zu Prophet Ezekiel of the banner" (pen). On the same page: "Gift from the personal library of Fred K. Orloff. May 4, 1995."

A copy of the first edition, fortunately for us, was obtained by the Library of Congress from the Lenin Library in 1958 through exchange. First, we shall briefly describe the copy from the Lenin Library. It is housed in the Rare Book Division under call number BS110. O8 1581 <Rare Bk Coll>. Publication date: July 12, 1581. Binding dates to the 1780s: on the binding pages is the Yaroslavl' coat of arms with the date of 1788 and the letters IaMSIa. On the inside cover page of the binding, information about the interlibrary exchange is recorded with the date of January 9, 1958, alongside "no. 1457," "sh 65 s," "no. 234." In binding, the book was noticeably cut from the top. The text was preserved intact, and the book is in excellent condition. It previously had belonged to the Troitskaia Hermitage at the Aleksander Svirskii Monastery (see the note, written in the 17th century, on page III verso and the note on the verso of the page paired with it, where the Book of Genesis begins) and then, apparently through an unknown used book dealer, it found its way to the Lenin State Library. In the following description, we shall constantly refer to the Lenin Library's copy for comparison.

Our Old Believer edition is dated on the basis of the entry on page 469 verso: "Now concurring in every regard with the same translation, published with the care and support of the Moscow Old Believers' Book Press. . . 7422, in the month of March, on the fifteenth day, in the most preeminent city of Moscow." This, we conclude, establishes the date of publication as March 15, 1914.

The 1914 edition has a number of peculiar features. First, four pages are missing between pages 6 and 7. On the title page, the letters M and N were inserted in a window alongside a flower. There is no vermilion. The coat of arms of the Ostrog Princes was added. The paper has no watermarks, but on the other hand, the verg_s and pontuseaux are clearly visible.

The illuminated letters of the 1914 edition follow the style used by the Moscow Court Press between 1634 and 1640 (cf. Zernova, No. 672-727). Illuminations are mostly of a single type, relatively simple, but not noted in Zernova's or Voznesenskii's catalogs. We have such illuminations on ff. 1, 33, 59 verso, 79, 106 (inverted), 129 verso, 147, 162, 164, 181, 211 verso, 226, 240, 257 verso, 262, 269, 290, 306, 318, 346 verso, 358, 364, 371, 388, 410 verso, 436 verso, 442 verso, 467, 476 verso, 480, 481, 484 verso, 485 verso, 490 verso, 491 verso, 496, 497, 600, 601, 602 verso, 604 verso, 606, 706 (two illuminations), 708 verso (two illuminations), 710, 716 verso, 723, 726, 729 verso, 731 verso, 733 verso, 735 verso, 737, 738, 740, 741 verso, 742 verso, 743, 749, 763, 766 verso, 769 (two illuminations).

On a separate folio, also shown is King David (engraving produced by the Moscow Court Press: see 317-2) and the apostle Luke (probably from the edition of Ivan Fedorov: f. 584 verso).

The 1914 edition is richly ornamented; in the text there are 110 scenes tracing back to the Litsevoi svod [an illuminated chronicles collection from the reign of Ivan IV] (p. 1, 3, 4, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15, 22, 24, 26, 27, 31, 32, 34, 35, 36, 38, 39, 43, 44, 46, 47, 51, 52, 54, 55, 59, 60, 62, 63, 66, 68, 70, 72, 74, 76, 78. 80, 82, 84, 86, 88, 90, 92, 94, 96, 98, 102, 104, 106, 108, 110, 112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122, 124, 126, 128, 130, 132, 134, 135, 136, 138, 140, 142, 146, 148, 150, 152, 154, 156, 157-2, 159, 163, 180-2, 420-2, 428-2, 442-2, 482-2, 483-2, 487-2, 488-2, 489-2, 490-2, 491-2, 492-2, 495-2, 496-2, 647, 648, 650, 651, 652, 653, 654, 655, 657, 658, 659, 660, 661, 662, 662-2), as well as 33 illustrations done in the 19th century with clear allusions to Saint Petersburg and Moscow, in which Biblical figures were placed in contemporary real-life settings (ff. 4-2; 10-2, 16-2, 29-2, 40-2, 41-2, 56-2, 94-2, 132-2, 173-2, 183-2, 207-2, 208-2, 213-2, 317-2, 468-2, 475-2, 484-2, 527 verso, 528-2, 541-2, 543-2, 549-2, 551-2, 553 verso, 572, 573-2, 576-2, 578-2, 579-2, 580-2, 583-2, 584 verso).

Among the illustrations taken from the Litsevoi svod, particularly noteworthy are pages 90, where the ornamentation is well balanced; 114, in which a soldier marches forward as an angel blows a trumpet; 126, depicting an army advancing on Jericho; 420-2, a scene of a prophecy before the Tsar. But the most original illustrations (definitely of Old Believer origin) reproduce urban scenes depicting life in the late 19th century: here one easily recognizes Saint Petersburg (ff. 132-2, 468-2) or the Moscow Kremlin (ff. 183-2, 577-2).

Also see the articles by I. E. Evseev [31], M. N. Speranskii [32], Iu. Riazanov [33], and Iu. A. Labyntsev [34].

Orloff 2. Kormchaia. 1779.

33 x 19.8 cm. Paper with the date of 1779.

On page 37 verso of the first pagination: message about the printing of the Kormchaia with the blessing of Patriarch Nikon. Date: the year 7161 (1653), June 3. Cf. the description of the first edition: Zernova, no. 248. See also A. V. Voznesenskii. Predvaritel'nyi spisok. No. 66, p. 26 [35].

The illuminations are located on the following pages: f. 1 - illumination 1; f. 7 - illumination 2; f. 1 (second pagination) - illumination 3; f. 5 (second pagination) - illumination 4; ff. 30, 31, 32 - illumination 5.

On the last page verso is the notation in F. Orloff's handwriting: "This book belongs to Fred Orloff, only in the care of Martha Miakinin." Then there is a notation about the donation (May 4, 1995). Two other notations concerning ownership were added in the late 18th/early 19th century: "Ivan Kuzevnitskii" (pencil), and "Sofonii Vasil'evich" (red pencil).

Our Kormchaia differs little in ornamentation from its famous predecessor, the 1649-1653 edition.


Orloff 3. Evangelie uchitel'noe [Instructive Gospels]. The sermons of Ioann Zlatoust and Feofilikat Bolgarskii.

38 x 25 cm 1 folio., 542 ff., 2 ff. Binding: wood, leather, hasps lost.

F. 1 - illumination, Voznesenskii 6, Zernova 365 (1646-1663) f. 19 - Voznesenskii 24, f. 152 Voznesenskii 16, f. 162 and 168 verso - Voznesenskii 43; f. 441 - variant of Zernova no. 338 (1632-1655).

Reprint of the original edition of June 12, 1652 (for description cf. Zernova no. 240). The reprint was executed at the Preobrazhenskiy Monastery [bogadelennyy dom] Moscow in 1912-13.


Orloff 4. Apostol.

f. 1, 318 ff. in folio 38 x 23 cm. Early 20th century.

Paper without stamps or watermarks.

Original edition: June 29, 1648. Description: Zernova no. 211.

Notations: "Belongs to Fred Orloff. 10/5/52," "Gift from the personal library of Fred K. Orloff, May 4, 1995."

f. 185 verso, 230 verso, 237 - primitive, relatively late illumination.

f. 1, notation in pencil: "zri, zachalo 141 o prichastii" [see, beginning 141 about communion]


Orloff 5. Psaltyr'.

433 p, in 1/4 folio. 29.2 x 20.5 cm. 1904.

Binding: wood, leather, two copper hasps.

Second printing: ff. 430-433 verso: printed in Moscow at the Holy Trinity Church of the Presentation of the Blessed Virgin by the Edinoverie press, 1904, September 2. Source of the edition: Zernova no. 182, where the Psaltyr' of December 6, 1645, is described.


Orloff 6. Zlatoust. Collection of sermons.

In folio. 33 x 25 cm. Ff. I, 1-8 (paginated 1-4), 1-336, I (bound). 1904.

On the back cover of the binding is the notice: "Gift from the personal library of Fred K. Orloff. May 5, 1995."

The original was published by the Pochaevskaia press. Our book was printed in Moscow at the Holy Trinity Church of the Presentation of the Blessed Virgin by the Edinoverie press, January 3/March 1, 1904.

The collection includes sermons of Ioann Zlatoust; the sermon of the holy fathers; the sermon of Cyrill the Monk; the story of Patriarch Nektarii; the sermon of a devout believer; the sermon of an elder to his spiritual brethren; the sermon of Saint Efrem and Grigorii Bogoslov; the story of the holy fathers, "questions and answer"; the story of St. Basil; the story of Nifont; povest' dushepolezna o nastoiashchem sem zhitii [a parable about life in this world]; the sermon of Efrem Sirin; the story of Iosif Prekrasnyi [Joseph the Beautiful]; the sermon of Grigorii Antiokhiiskii [Gregory of Antioch]; the sermon Cyrill the Monk on the renewal of Christ's Resurrection; the sermon of Cyrill about an invalid; the sermon of archbishop Evsevii; the sermon of Basil the Great; a sermon from the Paterik [The Lives of the Fathers]; the sermon of Anastasii of Sinai; the sermon of Evagrii the Monk; the sermon of the holy fathers about alms; and the sermon of the holy father Ammonii.

Orloff 7. Triod' postnaia [Orthodox service book containing liturgy from Septuagesima to Easter]

In folio. 34.2 x 21.6 cm. 1 binding page, 1 protective page, 1-598, 1 protective, 1 binding. From the early 20th century.

On the back binding page are the notations: "Gift from the personal library of Fred K. Orloff, May 5, 1995" (in pencil), "Lent Triodion [Posnaia trevod']. This book belongs to Fedor Kondrat'evich Orloff, 236 2nd Street East, Erie, PA."

Reprint of the 1650 original: Zernova no. 224 (published October 11, 1650).

Contains one illumination: Zernova no. 299 (1621-1660).

Orloff 8. Triod' tsvetnaia [Orthodox service book containing liturgy from Easter to All-Saints' Week].

35.3 x 22.9 cm. In folio. 1 (protective), 588 ff., 1 protective. 1913-14

Reprint of the Moscow original, either April 1653. (Zernova, no. 246 [36]), or January 1660 (Zernova no. 283) by the Edinoverie press at the Preobrazhenskii Monastery in Moscow in the year 7421.


Orloff 9. Mineia Chetiia [a calendar of readings on the lives of the saints], September-November.

32.9 x 20.5 cm. In folio.

559 ff. (f. 558 is repeated).

This holy book, the Mineia Chetiia of September, October, and November, is a first printing from the Kiev original first editions, executed at the Preobrazhenskii Monastery in Moscow in the year 7422, i.e., 1913/14.

Inside the binding: "Gift from the personal library of Fred Orloff. May 4, 1995."

The orginal edition was published in Kiev, where the Great Mineia Chetiia of Metropolitan Makarii (from an unknown manuscript), Semion Metafrast's Lives of the Saints (partially in Maksim Grek's translation), and other sources were carefully examined.

Inserted into the book are two pages from a 1977 Russian-language church calendar published in New Jersey in 1976.

On the back binding pages are the handwritten remarks: "f. 468, see about the church title," f. 538 verso :"see about the clergy" Ornamentation: f. 1 - illumination which does not correspond with any earlier illumination. F. 1 (second pagination) - Zernova no. 365 (1646-1663). The initial "B," see Zernova 538 (1649-1663). F. 61 - primitive collophon, not in Zernova. F. 58 - Zernova no. 364 (1646-72). F. 197 - illumination, primitive, cf. the same illumination at the beginning of October, based on Zernova no. 302a (1635-1658). F. 375 - primitive illumination, variations on a theme, Zernova no. 365 (1646-63). F. 374 verso, collophon, totally original.

On f. 1 are listed "uchiteli, spisateli, povestovateli, ot nikh zhe kniga siia sostavisia," and among those named are Metropolitan Makarii and Simeon Metafrast. Presented are many, although with serious gaps, lives of the saints, whose memories are observed in September, October, and November. Among the texts of the Mineia we should especially note the life of Peter, the Metropolitan of Kiev, on ff. 214 verso - 217 verso.

Orloff 10. Mineia Chetiia. December-February.

On the inside cover of the binding: "Gift from the personal library . . ."

f. 653 verso: Afterword as in the preceding volume.

Among the sources also appeared the Prolog [Prologue] and the Martirolog [Martyrology].

On the final binding page: "This book belongs to Fedor K. Orloff, 236 2nd St." "See f. 337, about Vasil, "How to come to the church." This is a reference to the biography of Basil the Great, ff. 336-37, where there are numerous notes such as zri [see] and skoro zri [see more carefully].

Ornamentation. Illuminations: Zernova no. 365: ff. 1, 321, 606; Zernova no. 167 (1600-1606) - f. 321; Zernova no. 364 (1646-1677) - ff. 252, 389 verso. The initial "C" [cyrillic] - Zernova 536 (1631-1662).


Orloff 11. Chetiia Mineia. March - April - May.

662 ff. In folio. 1914/15. Paper without stamps or watermarks. Notation in pencil on the inside page of the binding: "Gift from the personal library of Fred K. Orloff. May 4, 1995." On the first page, pencil notation: "This book belongs to Fedor K. Orloff, 236 2nd Street."

Ornamentation: ff. 1, 244, 326 - illuminations, cf. Zernova catalog no. 365 (1646-63). Voznesenskii 6. All other illuminations are more recent.

Among the various compositions we especially note some materials connected with VMCh.

f. 335-338, the life of Savatii Solovetskii

f. 338 verso - 348, the life of Zosima Solovetskii

f. 406 verso - 417, the life of Stefan Permskii

f. 436 verso - 446, the life of Pafnutii Borovskii in the edition ascribed to Vassian Sanin

f. 525 - 527, the life of Simeon, the bishop of Vladimir and Suzdal', taken from the Pecherskii paterik

f. 638 - 642 verso, the life of Efrosiniia Polotskaia, from VMCh, abridged edition.


Orloff 12. Chetiia Mineia. June - July - August.

Ornamentation: f. 482 illumination, Zernova no. 365 (1646-63), f. 297 imitation of Zernova no. 365, primitive, f. 687 verso imitation of Zernova no. 382 (1655-77) or Zernova 356 (1643-88).

On the back protective page is the notation (in ink): "This book belongs to Fedor Orloff, 236 2nd Street." In the same place, in pencil notation: "August 27. Kto, chto govoril, ne ver' esli sam ne slyshal [No matter what anyone says, don't believe it if you didn't hear it yourself.]" In ink on page 1: "Property of Fred Orloff."

Among the articles are:

f. 19 - 23, the life of Ioann Sochavskii, martyred in Belgrade

f. 31 - 42 verso, the transportation of the relics of the Saint Tsarevich Dmitrii of Uglich

f. 53 - 54, from the chronicle of Pechera Monastery. About the death of Metropolitan Konstantin.

f. 79 - 91 verso, the life of Kirill Belozerskii based on the VMCh and Prolog

f. 250 - 261, the tale of the Tikhvin icon of the Mother of God

f. 262 - 266, from the Sobornik published in Moscow, on the miracles of the Tikhvin icon of the Mother of God, on the miracles of the icon of the Mother of God Rimlianiny or Ludskoi

f. 293 verso - 296 verso, the life of Petr tsarevich of Rostov

f. 363 - 366 verso, the life of Prokopii of Ustiug

f. 417 - 425 verso, the life of Princess Ol'ga, from various chronicles

f. 525 - 527 verso, the life of Prokopii of Pechera from the Pecherskii paterik

f. 543 verso - 551 verso, the life of Makarii Zheltovodskii

f. 629 - 631, the phenomenon of the Tolg Mother of God icon

Orloff 13. Mineia prazdnichnaia [Calendar of holiday readings]. September - August.

35.2 x 22.1 cm. In folio. Early 20th century.

Ornamentation: ff. 1, 194 verso, 451 verso, 639 verso - copy from Zernova no. 363 (1646-66). F. 2 - illumination of the Zernova no. 375 (1651-79) type. F. 1 (second pagination; henceforth not noted), ff. 178, 322, 439, 480, 560 verso, 618, 681, 808, 942 verso, 973 verso. Ff. 11 and 54 - Zernova 348 (1638-60).

Ff. 63 verso, 95 verso, 334, 433, 603, 766, 781, 831 - Zernova no. 302a (1635-58). Ff. 73, 123, 136 verso, 205, 412 verso, 468, 624, 655 - Zernova no. 167 (1600-58). Ff. 108 verso, 242, 287, 346, 374 verso, 431, 454, 546, 619 verso, 631 verso, 793 verso, 819 verso - approximately correspond to Zernova no. 276 (1618-49). Ff. 130, 154, 222, 301 verso - Zernova no. 375 (1651-71). Ff. 197, 469, 523 - Zernova no. 364 (1646-77). Ff. 412, 466, 695, 757 verso - Zernova no. 359 (1644-60).

On pages 318, 362, and 405 are original illuminations. Ff. 497 verso, 621, 832 - one of the variants of Zernova no. 350 (1639-62). Ff. 638 verso, 652, 734 verso, 756, 868, 894 - Zernova no. 357 (1644 - 53). On pages 651 verso and 652 verso - of the type in Zernova no. 347 (1638-52). F. 555 - Zernova no. 365 (1646-63). F. 566 - Zernova no. 280 (1621-60).

The direct source was the edition of June 29, 1650 (Zernova no. 221).

Composition: Services arranged in the chronology of the church year.

Services for holidays and selected saints' days: the beginning of the new year; Birth of the Blessed Virgin; the Elevation of the Cross; Ioann Bogoslov; the Presentation of the Blessed Virgin; the Miracle of the Blessed Virgin in Novgorod; and, out of chronological order, a service to the great martyr George, the Blessed Virgin's Sunday service; pre-Easter services; and the entire cycle of Easter services themselves.


Orloff 14. Potrebnik inocheskii [daily services for monks].

In 1/8 folio on 2 + 214 f (two different paginations) + 3 blank folios. 17.6 x 11.5 cm. 1912/13.

Paper has no watermarks or stamps.

Ornamentation: ff. 1, 140 verso, 144, 189, and 214 verso identical illuminations, variations on the theme of Zernova 429 (1676-84). F.1 of the second pagination - an illumination not found in Zernova.

F. 214 verso: "This holy potrebnik, compiled from early printed potrebnikov with additional questions about sin in the sacrament of confession, was published in its second printing by the Christian press at the Preobrazhenskii Monastery in Moscow, in the year 7421 (1912/13).

Contains several variants of the sacrament of confession.

The indicated additions to the traditional sacrament are found on ff. 144-61, 174-87, 187-88 verso, where the following are noted: "Did you happen to take any sort of medicine from a pharmacy?" (f. 148); "Did you happen to drink some tea or coffee or anything else with sugar or some other bezmestnymi sweets?" (ff. 151 verso - 152); "Have you insured yourself against accident or death?" (f. 156 verso).


Collection of the Edinoverets Miakinin.

Miakinin 1. Torzhestvennik. Late 19th century manuscript. In folio. 29.8 x 18.2 cm. Paper lacks stamps or watermarks. Binding: wood, leather. Old Believer script, several different handwritings.

Ornamentation: before the following services we find primitive illuminations, partially ornamented in three colors. Contents: services for the miracle of the Virgin of Kazan'; Christmas; Memory of Joseph, David, and Jacob; Service of Christ's Circumcision; Service of the Epiphany; Advent; the Annunciation; polozhenie of the Lord's chasuble; Service for nedelia tsvetonosnaia [flower-wearing week]; Service of the Passions of Christ; Service for the transportation of the relic of Saint Nicholas; Service for the Transfiguration of the Lord; Service for the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin.


ff. 1-14. Epifanii, the Archbishop Cyprus; sermon on the entombment of the Lord's body.

ff. 15-49. Blank.

f. 50. The beginning of services from September to August, which include: Service to the great martyr George (April 23); Service for the birth of the Blessed Virgin (September 8); Service for the Elevation of the Cross (September 14); Service for the Presentation of the Blessed Virgin (November 21); Service for our holy forefathers; Service for the Holy Father (July 18?); Service for the miracle of the icon of the Virgin of Kazan' (July 8); Service for Christmas (December 25); Service for the memory of Joseph obruchnik [performer of the wedding ceremony]; King David, the brother of Gospodnia Jacob (December 26); Service for the circumcision of Jesus Christ (January 1); Service for the Epiphany (January 6); Council of the holy apostle John the Baptist (January 7); Council of the three saints (January 30); Advent (February 2); the Annunciation (March 25); polozhenie of the Lord's chasuble (July 10); service for nedelia tsvetonosnaia (not a fixed holiday); Service for the pious Lazarus (March 8); Service for the Passions of Christ; Service for the transportation of the relic of Saint Nicholas (May 9); Service for the Transfiguration of the Lord (August 6); Service for the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin (August 15); Service for the transportation of the image of Christ from Edessa (August 16); Service for Great Sabbath.


Miakinin 2. Chasovnik [Book of Hours]

22.5 x 18 cm. Ff. I, 1-8, 1-306, 1-64, II. Paper lacks watermarks and stamps. Binding: wood, leather. Has only one hasp.

Ornamentation: original illuminations, partly replicating the illumination of early printed books, but only roughly so. Interesting examples are on pages 1, 10, 68, 77 verso, 64 (second pagination), 5 - primitive, f. 1 (second pagination), f. 90, f. 177 verso, 287 (second pagination), etc.

f. 64. "This holy book filled with the holy spirit, known as the Chasovnik, was printed in the capital city of Moscow during the reign of Tsar Aleksei Mikhailovich in the time of the most holy Patriarch Iosif..." There is no corresponding date, but the following words are added: "now reprinted from an early printed translation at the Pochaevskaia press," with no definite date indicated.

f. 64 verso. "From the same source, it was printed as the first pressing in Moscow, at the Preobrazhenskii Monastery in the year 7416, which corresponds to the year 1908/9.

f. 28, third pagination: in the year 1912, Easter and the Annunciation coincided.

Does not correspond to a single one of the Chasovnik publications cited by Zernova, cf. Zernova 188, 191, 203, 218, 230, 233, 239.

Composition: Sermon by teachers who teach young children to read and write; Service of the hours, povecheritsy [vespers], tropari [Greek: troparion - a basic form the Byzantine hymn] of the Blessed Virgin; ipakoi; kondaki [Greek: kontakion - an abbreviated song]; krestobogorodichny [songs to the Blessed Virgin]; polunoshnitsa [midnight services]; instructions on how to sing a public prayer, followed by canons for all the heavenly powers.

f. 51 (third pagination) zriachaia paskhaliia [on dating the Easter holiday] for a series of years. The following years are noted in pencil: 1925-1939 (f. 51), 1940, 1941, 1946 (f. 52).


Miakinin 3.

Shestodnev In folio. 31 x 20 cm. ff. 1-2, 1-325, 1904.

Original edition: Zernova 227 (December 12, 1650).

Second edition: 1904, May 1- June 1.

Binding: wood, leather. There were no hasps.

Printed at the Edinoverie press, Holy Trinity Church of the Presentation of the Blessed Virgin. Text is composed according to the church year, from September to August, and material is presented in musical voices [glas], from 1 to 8, for the various days of the week.


The manuscripts and early printed books described above constitute, I believe, the complete holdings of early Slavic materials in the possession of the Library of Congress.


Translated from the Russian by Ronald D. Bachman

1. See A. Pliguzov (with Abby Smith), "Nicholas and Alexandra: Unpublished Romanov Documents Are in LC's Law Library," Library of Congress Information Bulletin, vol. 55, no. 2 (February 5, 1996), p. 26-29; "Kolchak's Last Stand: Papers Describe Death of Anti-Bolshevik Leader," Library of Congress Information Bulletin, vol. 55, no. 3 (February 19, 1996), p. 54-55; "The Bolsheviks in Business: The Russian Book Trade after the Revolution," Library of Congress Information Bulletin, vol. 55, no. 5 (March 18, 1996), p. 102-103. Also see the brief description of the collection of 17th- and 18th-century parchment scrolls in the Library of Congress catalog under the name Pliguzov. Also see my article, coauthored with V. Kozliakov entitled Kollektsiia rukopisnykh stolbtsov i drugie russkie materialy v Iuridicheskoi Biblioteke Kongressa [The manuscript parchment scrolls collection and other Russian materials in the Law Library of Congress] in Arkheograficheskii ezhegodnik za 1998 god, Moscow, 1998 (in press). See also a second article, coauthored with V. Kozliakov, Russkie rukopisnye knigi v Iuridicheskoi Biblioteke Kongressa [Early Russian Books in the Law Library of Congress] in Arkheograficheskii ezhegodnik za 1999 god, Moscow, 1999 (in preparation).

2. Seymour de Ricci, with the assistance of W[illiam] J[erome] Wilson. Census of Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the United States and Canada. New York, 1935. Vol. I, p. 228, no. 90. This work was cited again in the book Spravochnik-ukazatel' pechatnykh opisanii slaviano-russkikh rukopisei, compiled by N. F. Bel'chikov, Iu. K. Begunov, and N. P. Rozhdestvenskii (Moscow/Leningrad, 1963), p. 287.

3. Baskakov, E. G. Dokumental'nye materialy po istorii narodov SSSR v arkhivakh i bibliotekakh SShA. Istoriia SSSR. 1959, no. 2, p. 223-24. (The G. V. Yudin Collection is mentioned in connection with searches for V. I. Lenin's autographs; the names of 13 composers whose materials are among the holdings of the Library are listed.) By the same author, Rukopisnye istochniki po russkoi istorii v arkhivakh SShA (based on a new Guide to Archives and Manuscripts Collections in the U.S.A.). Istoriia SSSR. 1962, no. 2, p. 218.

4. Demkova, N. S. Drevnerusskie rukopisi i staropechatnye knigi v nekotorykh sobraniiakh SSha. TODRL. Leningrad, 1979, vol. XXXIV, p. 388-405. (Library of Congress books are discussed briefly on pages 398-99.)

5. It was difficult to locate this manuscript in the Rare Books Division since it lacked a call number. It consists of 226 ff, but only the first 89 ff are paginated. It measures 29.5 x 18.9 cm and includes two glued engravings: Feodosii Pecherskii on f. 17, and The Trinity (unpaginated folio). Presumably the manuscript dates to the middle of the 18th century. On the binding folios at the beginning of the manuscript, are inscribed in ink: Ivann Gumeniuk. Zbarazh dnia 15/VII 1881. The manuscript most likely originated in South Russia or Ukraine. The larger part of the book lacks any musical notation, but sometimes one can see notes on five-line staff. The paper has watermarks (monogram is illegible). The book often has monochromatic illuminations copied from the earliest manuscripts: plaits. It contains church services starting with Sabbath before Palm Sunday and ending with Pentecost service. The book was acquired by the Library as a gift of Anna Kuprak (see her inscription dated February 13, 1957).

6. The dimensions of the piece are 31 x 19.5 cm, 800 p. The book belonged to Ivan Platonovich Brysin. It was acquired by the Library of Congress in 1932 and dates to the 1740s. On page 83 is an outstanding illumination of the Pomor'e type. The script is early Pomor'e style. On the paper book plate "Yudin coll" mistakenly is written.

7. R. O. Jakobson. "Ivan Fedorov's Primer." Harvard Library Bulletin. 1955, vol. IX, no. 1, p. 41.

8. Kirkor Minassian, a resident of New York, was a well-known benefactor of the Library of Congress (In the Annual Report of the Library of Congress, 1932, p. 176, he was called a "generous patron of the Library"). He was best known for his Arabic and Persian collections, acquired during 40 years of travelling to the Orient (cf. Annual Report of the Library of Congress, 1931, p. 261). Concerning his philanthropic activity and gifts to the Library, see Annual Report of the Library of Congress, 1929, p. 11, 32, 64; Annual Report of the Library of Congress, 1930, p. 81; Annual Report of the Library of Congress, 1931, p. 260-261.) Minassian usually donated only illustrated pages from books, but on one occasion he presented to the Library five 15th-century astronomical instruments and seven Persian plates for printing on cloth (Annual Report of the Library of Congress, 1932, p. 176), and on another occasion he quite unexpectedly brought to the Library a Slavic piece, described below.

9. See the October 24, 1931, memorandum from N. R. Rodionov, acting chief of the Slavic Department, to an unnamed Deputy Librarian of Congress.

10. The Apostol is housed in the Rare Books Division under call number BS2617.5 .A4C45. It was acquired by the Library on December 15, 1932, and was probably purchased in the USSR by Israel Perlstein. Our copy is unique for the illumination noted in Zernova 88, which was found in only one of seven copies. Beautifully preserved, this copy contains 6 pages, 261 folios. On the backside of the front cover of the binding is the notation (in pencil): 750 p. Binding from the 1840s. Cf. Zernova, no. 7. Herein we use Zernova as shorthand for the publication: A. S. Zernova. Ornamentka knig Moskovskoi pechati XVI-XVII vekov [Ornamentation of Books Printed in Moscow in the 16th-17th Centuries]. Moscow, 1952; and Zernova I is shorthand for the publication: A. S. Zernova. Knigi kirillovskoi pechati, izdannye v Moskve v XVI-XVII vekakh. Svodnyi katalog [Books from the Kirillovskaia Press Published in Moscow in the 16th-17th Centuries. Summary Catalog]. Moscow, 1958. Additionally, we use the abbreviation Voznesenskii in reference to the publication: A. V. Voznesenskii, compiler. Kirillicheskie izdaniia staroobriadcheskikh tipografii kontsa XVIII - nachala XIX veka [Cyrillic Publications by Old Believer Printers of the Late 18th/Early 19th Centuries]. Leningrad, 1991.

11. The Fedorov Bible was acquired in 1958 from the V. I. Lenin Library through exchange. It is kept in the Rare Books Division under call number BS110 .O8 1581. A partial description is presented below.

12. Kept in the Rare Books Division under the call number BX375 .E75A4 1946. On f. II is the stamp of former owner Sergei Ivanovich Borovskii.

13. Kept in the Rare Books Division under call number U101 .W217. Russian translation of the military treatise of Johann Jacobi von Wallhausen, cf. Zernova 201. Our edition is defective; many missing pages have been replaced with copies made from the New York Public Library's copy (ff. 44, 52-56, 69-70, 87-90, 92, 143, 148, 176, 187, 192, 223-224), which also was the source of our copy, acquired through interlibrary exchange.

14. Located in the Rare Books Division under call number PG623 .S6 1648. In one-quarter folio, ff. 1, 388. Dimensions are 23.5 by 16.4 cm. On the first pages is the ownership notation: "Year 7183 (1684/85). This book called the grammar belongs to Ivan Nikiforov, son of Korashaev, and signed in his own hand." On f. 1 verso, is the note "27/II 95." Binding: wood and leather, restored, hasps missing. The book is in good condition.

15. Edition described in Zernova 216 (group 1-2). At present, however, its location cannot be established. See Annual Report of the Library of Congress, 1930, p. 137, and "The Law Library of the Library of Congress: Its History, Collections and Services," Washington, 1978, p. 37.

16. The location of this book at present is unknown.

17. Located in the Law Library, Law Office, under the call number KR1200 .K6 1653 (Zernova 248). On f. II we find the 18th-century notes: "No. 20. This is the book of Moscow merchant Mikhail Danilov Kirilov, inscribed May 1, 1787. Later we find the 19th-century notes "Eliseia Morozova," "No. 244 in the inventory of V. E. Morozov." The book was acquired by I. Perlstein for the Library of Congress in 1931 from the USSR. See Annual Report of the Library of Congress, 1931, p. 142-143.

18. Housed in the Rare Books Division under call number BS2615 .C473 1680. See Zernova 312; the book was published June 9, 1665. It was sold by Lavka pisatelei [Writers' Shop] on April 19, 1956, for 350 rubles. Other call numbers: 954 8 G / 16 0 49; No. 4.

19. It was housed in the Law Library of the Library of Congress, but the location of the book now is unknown.

20. Housed in the Rare Books Division under call number BS1425 .C4 1680. Described in Zernova 359. Part of the Yudin Collection, it was purchased in St. Petersburg, as shown by the plate on the inside of the back cover of the binding: "V. I. Klochkov. SP-burg. Liteinyi pr. 55. Antiquarian Bookseller." The binding is from the 17th century, and the hasps are missing. Apparently it was purchased on May 12, 1893, and was acquired by the Library of Congress in 1907.

21. Located in the Rare Books Division under call number PG2115 .K3 1694. Perhaps it was part of the Yudin Collection, but the emblem denoting the library of G. V. Yudin is later, from 1928. The date of acquisition by the Library of Congress (104 837 /07) supports the hypothesis that the piece belonged to the Yudin Collection. The year 1694 for the book of Karion Istomin obviously is incorrect and should be 1696. Cf. Zernova 472. We are dealing with a later reproduction of the original. Thus on ff. 13 and 14 there are no traces of a water mark and no grid of vergés and pontuseaux, although on all other pages the grid and water mark is observed, albeit at times on the edge of the sheet. The paper differs substantially in thickness.

22. Kept in the Rare Books Division under call number BX375 .P7A4 1700.

23. V. M. Undol'skii. Ocherk slaviano-russkoi bibliografii [Outline of a Slavonic/Russian Bibliography]. Moscow, 1871. Stb. 221, no. 2279.

24. The manuscript was purchased at an auction in Germany and donated to the Library of Congress "by the Friends of Music." Cf. Annual Report of the Library of Congress, 1932, p. 158.

25. After the late 16th century, Russian music experienced Western influences, and in order to preserve traditional music, Russians retained the use of unique symbolic conventions [pomety and priznaki]. The Old Believers continued this tradition.

26. The piece was described in detail in Annual Report of the Library of Congress, 1932, p. 158-159.

27. See also two printed books from the 18th century containing similar texts in musical notation which are kept under the call numbers M 2158 / .067 and M 2158 / .073.

28. The manuscript has no binding. On the first pages is the owner's inscription: "This book belongs to nadvornyi sovetnik Gavril Gorokhov." Concerning the compositions of Krekshin, see: Pliukhanova, M. B. Istoriia iunosti Petra I u P. N. Krekshina//Trudy po russkoi i slavianskoi filologii. XXXII. Literaturovedenie. Tartu, 1981. (Uchenye zapiski Tartusskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, vyp. 513), pp. 17-39.

29. The city of Erie now has a population of more than 120,000. It is known for its large harbor, which handles timber, coal, iron ore, oil, grain, and fish. Boilers, engines, furnaces, locomotives, asbestos, and paper are produced there. One can presume that from its very beginnings in 1803, considering that there was a French fortification there as early as 1753, the city has enjoyed a well-developed infrastructure in terms of construction, transportation, etc. Cf. History of Erie County: 1870-1970. Ed. by W. S. Dunn, Jr. Erie, 1971.

30. For a detailed description of the development of these events, see P. S. Smirnov's Istoriia russkago raskola staroobriadchestva. Riazan', 1893, p. 208-17, 258-73.

31. I. E. Evseev. Ostrozhskaia Biblia 1581 g. v staroobriadcheskoi perepechatke. Moskva, 7422 (1914)-go goda//Tserkovnyi vestnik. 1914. No. 21. Stb. 637-640. The author was trying to accuse the publishers of omitting one and a half chapters of the Book of Malachi, but in our book, the text is complete. It was probably a technical oversight.

32. M. N. Speranskii. Ostrozhskaia Bibliia 1581 g. v izdanii 1914//Russkie vedomosti 1914, no. 99, April 30.

33. Iu. Riazanov. "Slovo v slovo"//Ural'skii sledopyt. 1980. No. 10, pp. 66-67.

34. Iu. A. Labyntsev. Ostrozhskaia Bibliia v perepechatke 1914 g.//Fedorovskie chteniia 1981. Moskva. 1985, pp. 197-203.

35. A. V. Voznesenskii. Predvaritel'nyi spisok staroobriadcheskikh kirillicheskikh izdanii XVIII veka. SPb., 1994, p. 26.

36. The text gives the date as March 17, 1658, but on that day they completed the printing of the Psaltir' z vossledovaniem [Psalter with additional material] (Zernova, no. 277), which could not have been the source of text of our edition.